**Museum Entrance**

The Cyberion City Museum welcomes you! In the Computer Museum you will
find a one-act play about Alan Turing and computer consciousness.
"The Turtling Test" stars Achilles and the Tortoise, who formerly appeared
in the Pulitzer Prize-winning book, 'Goedel, Escher, Bach' by
Douglas Hofstadter. The Children's wing of the Museum currently features
Letters From Children Around the World, culled from the KIDS-91 and
KIDS-92 Newsletters, as reprinted on KIDSPHERE (formerly called KIDSNET).

**Contents:**

Science and Technology Council Mission Statement

**Obvious exits:**

Computer Museum .. Curio Shop .. Children's Wing .. Sundial Room ..
Out

You head North to explore The World of Computers.

**Computer Museum**

Welcome to the Computer Museum. We are proud to present
"The Turtling Test" by Moulton, a one-act play starring Achilles
and the Tortoise. Please make yourself at home.
Thank you for your patronage!

**Contents:**

The Great Achilles

The Venerable Tortoise

**Obvious exits:**

Out

**The Great Achilles**

You see the famous fleet footed athlete of Greek Mythology.

**The Venerable Tortoise**

You see the slow-moving but thoughtful tortoise of Greek Mythology.

Welcome! You're just in time! The show will be starting in 30 seconds.

**The Turtling Test**, starring Achilles and the Tortoise.
The scene is the Computer Museum.

The stage lights come up on Achilles and the Tortoise....

**Achilles:** Good morning, Mr. T!

**Tortoise:** Good day, Achilles. What a wonderful day for
touring the computer museum.

**Achilles:** Yes, it's quite amazing to realize how far our
computer technology has come since the days of Von Neumann and Turing.

**Tortoise:** It's interesting that you mention Alan Turing, for
I've been doing some biographical research on him. He is a most
interesting and enigmatic character.

**Achilles:** Biographical research? That's a switch.
Usually people like to talk about his Turing Test, in which
a human judge tries to distinguish which of two individuals is the
human and which is the computer, based on their answers to questions
posed by the judge over a teletype link. To tell you the truth,
I'm getting a little tired of hearing people talk about it so much.

**Tortoise:** You have a fine memory, my friend, but I'm afraid you'll be
disappointed when I tell you that the Turing Test does come up in my work.

**Achilles:** In that case, don't tell me.

**Tortoise:** Fair enough. Perhaps you would be interested to know what
Alan Turing would have done next if he hadn't died so tragically in his prime.

**Achilles:** That's an interesting idea, but of course it's
impossible to say.

**Tortoise:** If you mean we'll never know for sure, I would certainly
agree. But I have just come up with a way to answer the question anyway.

**Achilles:** Really?

**Tortoise:** Really. You see, I have just constructed a model of
Alan Turing's brain, based on a careful examination of everything he read,
saw, did, or wrote about during his tragic career.

**Achilles:** Everything?

**Tortoise:** Well, not quite everything -- just the things I know
about from the archives and from his notes and effects. That's why it's
just a model and not an exact duplicate of his brain. It would be a perfect
model if I could discover everything he ever saw, learned, or discovered.

**Achilles:** Amazing!

**Tortoise:** Since Turing had a very logical mind, I merely start
with his accumulated knowledge and reason logically to what he would have
investigated next. Interestingly, this leads to a possible hypothesis
explaining why Turing committed suicide.

**Achilles:** Fantastic! Let's hear your theory.

**Tortoise:** A logical next step after devising the Turing Test
would be to give the formal definition of a Turing Machine to computer
'A' (which, since it's a computer, happens to be a Turing Machine itself)
and ask it to decide if another system (call it machine 'B') is a
Turing Machine.

**Achilles:** I don't get it. What is machine 'A' supposed to do
to decide the question?

**Tortoise:** Why it merely devises a test which only a
Turing Machine could pass, such as a computation that a lesser beast
would choke on. Then it administers the Test to machine 'B' to see
how it handles the challenge.

**Achilles:** Are you sure that a Turing Machine knows how to
devise such a test in the first place?

**Tortoise:** That's a good question. I suppose it depends on how
the definition of a Turing Machine is stated. Clearly, a good definition
would be one which states or implies a practical way to decide if an
arbitrary hunk of matter possesses the property of being a Turing Machine.
In this case, it's safe to assume that the problem was well-posed,
meaning that the definition was sufficiently complete.

**Achilles:** So what happened next?

**Tortoise:** You mean what does my model of Turing's brain
suggest as the next logical step?

**Achilles:** Of course, Mr. T. I quite forgot what level we
were operating on.

**Tortoise:** Next, Machine 'A' would be asked if Machine 'A'
itself fit the definition of a Turing Machine!

**Achilles:** Wow! You mean you can ask a machine to examine
its own makeup?

**Tortoise:** Why not? In fact many modern computers have built-in
self diagnostic systems. Why can't a computer devise a diagnostic program
to see what kind of computer it is? As long as it's given the definition
of a Turing Machine, it can administer the test to itself and see if it passes.

**Achilles:** Holy Holism! Computers can become self-aware of what
they are?!

**Tortoise:** That would seem to be the case.

**Achilles:** What happens next?

**Tortoise:** You tell me.

**Achilles:** The Turing Machine tries the Turing Test on a human.

**Tortoise:** Very good. And what is the outcome?

**Achilles:** The human passes?

**Tortoise:** Right!

**Achilles:** So Alan Turing concludes that he's nothing more than
a Turing Machine, which makes him so depressed he eventually commits suicide.

**Tortoise:** Maybe.

**Achilles:** What else could there be?

**Tortoise:** Let's go back to your last conclusion. You said,
'Turing concludes that he's nothing more than a Turing Machine.'

**Achilles:** I don't follow your point.

**Tortoise:** Suppose Turing wants to prove conclusively that he
was something more than 'just a Turing Machine.'

**Achilles:** I see. He had a Turing Machine in him, but he wanted
to know what else he was that was more than just a machine.

**Tortoise:** Right. So he searched for some way to discover how
he differed from a machine in an important way.

**Achilles:** And he couldn't discover any way?

**Tortoise:** Not necessarily. He may have known of several ways.
For example, he could have tried to fall in love.

**Achilles:** Why falling in love is the easiest thing in the world.

**Tortoise:** Not if you try to do it. Then it's impossible!

**Achilles:** I see your point.

**Tortoise:** In any event, there is no evidence that Turing ever
fell in love, even though he must have known it was possible.
Maybe he didn't know that one shouldn't try so hard.

**Achilles:** So he committed suicide in despair?

**Tortoise:** Maybe.

**Achilles:** What else could there be?

**Tortoise:** The last possibility that comes to mind is that
Turing suspected there was something he was overlooking.

**Achilles:** And what is that?

**Tortoise:** Could a Turing Machine discover the properties of
a Turing Machine without being told?

**Achilles:** Gee, I don't know. But it could discover the properties
of another machine that it could do experiments on.

**Tortoise:** Would it ever think to do such experiments on itself?

**Achilles:** I don't know. Does it even know what the word 'itself'
points to?

**Tortoise:** Who would have given it the idea of 'self'?

**Achilles:** I don't know. It reminds me of Narcissus discovering
his reflection in a pool of water and falling in love with himself.

**Tortoise:** Well, I haven't finished my research yet, but I
suspect that a Turing Machine, without outside assistance, could not
discover the complete definition of itself, nor would it think to ask
itself the question, 'Am I a Turing Machine?' if it were simply given
the definition of one as a mathematical abstraction.

**Achilles:** In other words, if Alan Turing did ask himself the
question, 'Am I (Alan Turing) a Turing Machine?' the very act of posing
the question proves he isn't one!

**Tortoise:** That's my conjecture.

**Achilles:** So he committed suicide to prove he wasn't one,
because he didn't realize that he already had all the evidence he
needed to prove that he was intellectually more complex than a mere
Turing Machine.

**Tortoise:** Perhaps.

**Achilles:** Well, I would be most interested to discover the final
answer when you complete your research on this most interesting question.

**Tortoise:** My friend, if we live long enough, we're bound to
find the answer.

**Achilles:** Good day, Mr. T!

**Tortoise:** Good day, Achilles.

The stage lights dim. Achilles and the Tortoise take their bows. We hope you enjoyed the show!

Thank you for patronizing The Computer Museum.